Aestetic Plastic Surgery

Link to Cosmetic Plastic surgery research papers of Vibeke Breiting

History of Plastic Surgery

By Charles Kassotis

When most people use the term Plastic Surgery, they more often than not use it in reference to cosmetic surgery. Few people actually stop to think that Plastic Surgery covers a far wider range of surgical procedures and that cosmetic surgery is only one type of surgery related to Plastic Surgery. The full scope of Plastic Surgery is quite wide if one stops to think about it and more often than not, is related to, and, plays a fundamental role in conjunction with other fields of medicine and surgical procedures pertaining to the field of general surgery. Plastic Surgery is basically concerned with the reconstruction of the surface of the body whether that has to do with the reconstruction of facial or body disfigurations that are either congenital in nature or, acquired due to accidents or illness for example, cancer related disfigurations.

Although Plastic Surgery goes as far back as Ancient Egypt the first physicians who actually placed a more scientific scope in the field of Plastic Surgery and, to be more precise, cosmetic surgery were two Sicilians Gustav and Antonio Branka . Father and son, in 1400, they outlined the basic guidelines which plastic surgeons should follow when undertaking reconstructive nose surgery. However, the first to ever create a center for Plastic Surgery and to take the first steps to making Plastic Surgery an equally accepted field of medicine was another Italian, Taliakosi.

However, it was not until after World War I that Plastic Surgery developed its full scope of use. This was due to the enormous amount of facial and body disfigurations which either resulted in Plastic Surgery being undertaken for aesthetic reasons, to regain functional abilities or, more often than not, for both.

From then on and up until today, Plastic Surgery continues to play an ever increasingly important role as a field of medicine in today’s’ society either on its own when referring to simple cosmetic surgery or as part of, and in relation to other fields of surgical specialties.

Charles Kassotis is the Owner and Webmaster of and Many Other Personal Health and Wellness Websites. With a Strong Interest in Personal And Overall Health, he has Invested 100’s of Hours in Research, and Published countless Health Articles aimed at Better Educating the Public to their Choices when it comes to Personal Health and Wellness.

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Committing to Cosmetic Surgery

By Emily Clark

Cosmetic surgery is now so common, it’s almost commonplace. Cosmetic surgical procedures are used to correct everything from disfigurements that are the result of an accident to physical features that are perceived to be less than perfect. In some cases, cosmetic surgery can help to correct not only a physical trait but help to raise a person’s self-esteem as well.

There are a number of different cosmetic surgery options. The most common cosmetic surgical procedures involve redefining some aspect of the body, while others involve enhancing the skin through a variety of measures. Liposuction is a very popular cosmetic surgery option. This procedure allows the physician to suction the fat off various portions of the body to reveal slimmer and trimmer physique.

Rhinoplasty is a cosmetic surgery procedure in which the nose is reshaped. Some patients request this surgery because they perceive their nose to be either too big or an unattractive shape. In other cases, the procedure may be necessary to help a patient breathe better.

Implants is a term that is used frequently in regard to cosmetic surgery, however; besides it’s obvious application to the breast area implants are also used to enhance other body parts. The chin and cheekbones are two areas where are implants are frequently used to redefine a patient’s profile.

There are a variety of cosmetic surgery procedures that can be done to enhance the breast area. Implants are used frequently to increase a patient’s bust size. While the subject of breast implants received much bad press several years ago due to the fact that silicone breast implants were proven to be unsafe, the products used today are considered to be much safer. Lifts are often necessary to correct breasts that sag and droop. Augmentation may be utilized in order to align the breasts so that they are the same size when there is a situation where one breast is smaller than the other.

While some patients wish to undergo cosmetic surgery in order to increase their bust size, others have a breast reduction in order to reduce their breast size. This is often necessary when a woman has very large breasts that may cause health issues such as back pain and strain on the neck and shoulders.

The cosmetic surgery frequently referred to as a tummy tuck is similar to liposuction in that it removes excess fat from the area around the stomach and waist. Patients who have lost significant amounts of weight may find it necessary to have this procedure performed as well as an arm lift or buttock/thigh lift. When an individual loses large amounts of weight, particularly at a rapid rate, the skin generally begins to sag and no amount of exercise is able to tone the sagging skin. These types of cosmetic surgical procedures can tighten the skin.

While there are a variety of cosmetic surgery options available today that can correct almost any skin or body problem, it is important for patients to have realistic expectations. First, some cosmetic surgeries will leave permanent scars. The prospective patient must weigh the advantages and disadvantages of having a permanent scar against living with the issue that drove them to consider surgery. Secondly, it is very important that the patient realize that cosmetic surgery does not produce overnight results. Some surgeries will not produce optimal results until at least a year after the surgery was performed. Finally, as with all surgeries, cosmetic surgery does come with inherent risks and dangers.

The information contained in this article is for educational purposes only and is not intended to medically diagnose, treat or cure any disease. Consult a health care practitioner before beginning any health care program.

Emily Clark is editor at Lifestyle Health News and Medical Health News where you can find the most up-to-date advice and information on many medical, health and lifestyle topics.

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What You Should Know About Cosmetic Surgery

By Mike Jones

Cosmetic surgery is any surgical procedure that is designed to enhance your physical appearance. Unless the cosmetic surgery is required as the result of an accident, injury, or birth defect, the chances are the procedure will not be covered by your insurance.

Although cosmetic surgery may change your appearance and give you the confidence to face the world with a whole new attitude, it doesn't change who you "really" are inside. If you were lazy and unmotivated before your new nose, you're likely to still be lazy and unmotivated after.

The most common cosmetic surgery procedures are face lifts, liposuction, breast enhancement, "nose jobs" and "tummy tucks" but this is by no means the extent of what a cosmetic surgeon can do for you.

Cosmetic surgery is performed by a doctor who has undergone specialized training in either plastic or cosmetic surgery. When choosing a doctor always make sure that they have been certified by either the American Board of Plastic Surgery (ABPS) or the American Board of Cosmetic Surgery (ABCS). They should have the certification document in plain view in their office.

You'll want to ask the following questions when you are interviewing the doctor:

How often have you done this procedure?

How long have you been doing this procedure?

What are the best and worst case results that I can expect from this procedure?

What are the potential risks or complications of this procedure?

What do I need to do to prepare myself for this procedure?

How much time will I have to lose from work or normal social activity?

How much pain or discomfort is associated with this procedure?

How much will this procedure cost?

Will I require any follow-up treatment and is it included in the price?

Will I require any prescription drugs?

Will my insurance cover all or part of the costs?

Most cosmetic surgery doctors will have a book of "Before and After" pictures that have been taken of patients who have given their permission to be included in the book. Not only should you ask to see the book, but also ask if you can receive a discount by agreeing to have your pictures added.

One of the worst reasons for having a cosmetic surgery procedure performed is because "everyone else is doing it". What may be right for one of your friends may not be right for you. That's why it is important to have a frank discussion with your doctor before having any procedure done. Tell your doctor what your expectations are and then listen very closely to the answer. If you think that having a face lift is going to get you a better job, then you may need to reconsider your thinking. Most people's lives do not change radically after cosmetic surgery is performed.

In fact, there are often unexpected results that accompany cosmetic surgery. You may wonder why someone with as much money as Barbara Streisand has never had her nose "fixed". When she was younger her doctor told her that changing the shape of her nose would alter her voice! That was a risk that Barbara was not willing to take.

Cosmetic surgery should not be rushed into. Take your time, shop around for the best doctor and make sure that you have a solid grasp on your expectations. The chances are you will have to live with the results of the procedure for the rest of your life.

Credit: Mike Jones of, the health, body & beauty information site. Click here for related information on Plastic Surgery:

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